About Kazakhstan

World Map

The following information was taken from the CIA - The World Factbook - Kazakhstan [external link], 13 December 2007. The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), from their Contributors and Copyright Information [external link].

Introduction: Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence in 1991 caused many of these newcomers to emigrate. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; achieving a sustainable economic growth outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.

Geography

  • Location: Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural River in eastern-most Europe
  • Geographic coordinates: 48 00 N, 68 00 E
  • Area
    • total: 2,717,300 sq km
    • water: 47,500 sq km
    • land: 2,669,800 sq km
    • Comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas
  • Land boundaries
    • total: 12,012 km
    • border countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,2023 km
  • Coastline: landlocked; borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km) and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
  • Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
  • Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia
  • Elevation extremes
    • lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
    • highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m
  • Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chorme ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
  • Land use
    • arable land: 8.28%
    • permanent crops: 0.05%
    • other: 91.67% (2005)
    • irrigated land: 35,560 sq km (2003)
  • Natural hazards: earthquakes in the south, mudslides around Almaty
  • Environment
    • current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
    • international aggreements
      • party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
      • signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
  • Note: Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Bayknour Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050

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People

  • Population: 15,284,929 July 2007 est. (15,233,244 in July 2006, 15,185,844 in July 2005, 15,143,704 in July 2004 est.; 16,763,795 in July 2003 est.) All figures below are from the 2007 estimate.
  • Age
    • 0-14 years: 22.5% (23% in 2006, 23.7% in 2005, 24.4% in 2004), (male 1,758782; female 1,683,249)
    • 15-64 years: 69.2% (68.8% in 2006, 68.4% in 2005, 68% in 2004), (male 5,169,314; female 5,407,661)
    • 65 years and over: 8.3% (8.2% in 2006, 7.9% in 2005, 7.6% in 2004), (male 446,549; female 819,374)
    • median age
      • total: 29.1 years (28.8 in 2006, 28.52 in 2005, 28.3 in 2004)
      • male: 27.5 years (27.2 in 2006, 26.92 in 2005, 26.6 in 2004)
      • female: 30.8 years (30.5 in 2006, 30.25 in 2005, 30 in 2004)
  • Popluation growth rate: 0.352% (0.33% in 2006, 0.3% in 2005, 0.26% in 2004)
  • Birth rate: 16.23 births/1,000 population (16 in 2006, 15.78 in 2005, 15.52 in 2004, 18.36 in 2003)
  • Death rate: 9.4 deaths/1,000 population (9.46 in 2005, 9.59 in 2004, 10.78 in 2003)
  • Net migration rate: -3.32 imigrants/1,000 population (-3.33 in 2006, -3.34 in 2005, -3.35 on 2004, -5.89 in 2003)
  • Sex ratio:
    • at birth: 1.06 males/female
    • under 15 years: 1.045 males/female
    • 15-64 years: 0.956 males/female
    • 65 years and over: 0.545 males/female
    • total population: 0.932 males/female
  • Infant mortality rate:
    • total: 27.41 deaths/1,000 live births (28.3 in 2006, 29.21 in 2005, 30.54 in 2004, 58.73 in 2003)
    • male: 31.94 deaths/1,000 live births (32.88 in 2006, 33.85 in 2005, 35.24 in 2004, 63.47 in 2003)
    • female: 22.62 deaths/1,000 live births (23.45 in 2006, 24.3 in 2005, 25.57 in 2004, 53.83 in 2003)
  • Life expectancy at birth:
    • total population: 67.22 years (66.55 in 2005, 66.07 in 2004, 63.48 in 2003)
    • male: 61.9 years (61.56 in 2006, 61.21 in 2005, 60.72 in 2004, 58.16 in 2003)
    • female: 7284 years (72.52 in 2006, 72.2 in 2005, 71.73 in 2004, 69.06 in 2003)
  • Total fertility rate: 1.89 children born/woman in 2005, 2006 and 2007 (1.9 in 2004, 2.16 in 2003)
  • HIV/AIDS (2001 est.)
    • adult prevalence rate: 0.2%
    • people living with HIV/AIDS: 16,500
    • deaths: less than 200 (2003 est.)
  • Nationality: noun: Kazakhstani(s), adjective: Kazakhstani
  • Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4%, Russian 30%, Ukrainian 3.7%, Uzbek 2.5%, German 2.4%, Uighur 1.4%, other 6.6% (1999 census)
  • Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%
  • Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est.)
  • Literacy:
    • definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    • total population: 99.5%
    • male: 99.8%
    • female: 99.3% (1999 est.)

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Government

  • Country name:
    • conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
    • conventional short form: Kazakhstan
    • local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
    • local short form: Qazaqstan
    • former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
  • Government type: republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
  • Capital: Astana; 51 10 N, 71 30 E; time zone UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time), Kazakhstan is divided into three time zones
  • Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (oblystar, singular - oblys) and 3 cities* (qala, singular - qalasy); Almaty Oblysy, Almaty Qalasy*, Aqmola Oblysy (Astana), Aqtobe Oblysy, Astana Qalasy*, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oral), Bayqongyr Qalasy*, Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Shymkent), Pavlodar Oblysy, Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oskemen), Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavlovsk), Zhambyl Oblysy (Taraz)
    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995 the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonyr, formerly Leninsk); in 2004, a new agreement extended the lease to 2050
  • Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
  • National holiday: Republic Day, 25 October (1990); Independence Day, 16 December (1991)
  • Constitution: new constitution adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995; first post-independence constitution was adopted 28 January 1993
  • Legal system: based on Islamic law and Roman law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
  • Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
  • Executive branch:
    • chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)
    • head of government: Prime Minister Karim MASIMOV (since 10 January 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Umirzak SHUKEYEV (since 27 August 2007) and Yerbol ORYNBAYEV (since 29 October 2007)
    • cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    • elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 4 December 2005 (next to be held 2012); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president
    • election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 91.1%, Zharmakhan A. TUYAKBAI 6.6%, Alikhan M. BAIMENOV 1.6%
    • note: President NAZARBAYEV arranged a referendum in 1995 that expanded his presidential powers: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss the government, dissolve Parliament, call referenda at his discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities.
  • Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 7 members are appointed by the president; other members are elected by local assemblies, two from each of the 14 oblasts, the capital of Astana, and the city of Almaty, to serve six-year terms) and the Mazhilis (107 seats; 9 out of the 107 Majilis members are elected from the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, which represents the country's ethnic minorities; members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms)
    • elections: Senate - (indirect) last held December 2005 (next to be held in 2011); Mazhilis - last held 18 August 2007 (next to be held September 2012)
    • election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Mazhilis - percent of vote by party - Nur-Otan 88.1%, NSDP 4.6%, Ak Zhol 3.3%, Auyl 1.6%, Communist People's Party 1.3%, Patriots Party .8% Ruhaniyat .4%; seats by party - Nur-Otan 98; note - parties must achieve a threshold of 7% of the electorate to qualify for seats in the Mazhilis.
  • Judicial branch: Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7 members)
  • Political parties and leaders: Adilet (Justice) [Maksut NARIKBAYEV, Zeynulla ALSHIMBAYEV, Bakhytbek AKHMETZHAN, Yerkin ONGARBAYEV, Tolegan SYDYKOV] (formerly Democratic Party of Kazakhstan); Agrarian and Industrial Union of Workers Block or AIST (Agrarian Party and Civic Party); Ak Zhol Party (Bright Path) [Alikhan BAIMENOV]; Auyl (Village) [Gani KALIYEV]; Communist Party of Kazakhstan or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN]; Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]; National Social Democratic Party (NSDP)[Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Nur-Otan [Bakhytzhan ZHUMAGULOV] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged with Otan); Patriots' Party [Gani KASYMOV]; Rukhaniyat (Spirituality) [Altynshash ZHAGANOVA]
  • Political pressure groups and leaders: Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]; Almaty Helsinki Group [Ninel FOKINA]; Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]; For a Just Kazakhstan [Bolat ABILOV]; For Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV]; Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Pan-National Social Democratic Party of Kazakhstan [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAI]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; Republican Network of International Monitors [Dos KUSHIM]; Transparency International [Sergei ZLOTNIKOV]
  • International organization participation: AsDB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
  • Diplomatic representation in the US:
    • chief of mission: Ambassador Yerlan ISIRISOV
    • chancery: 1401 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
    • telephone: [1] (202) 232-5488
    • FAX: [1] (202) 232-5845
    • consulate(s): New York
  • Diplomatic representation from the US:
    • chief of mission: Ambassador John M. ORDWAY
    • embassy: Ak Bulak 4, Str. 23-22, Building #3, Astana 010010
    • mailing address: use embassy street address
    • telephone: [7] (3172) 70-21-00
    • FAX: [7] (3172) 34-08-90
  • Flag description: sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in gold.

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Economy

  • Overview: Kazakhstan, the largest of the former Soviet republics in territory, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a growing machine-building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR in December 1991 and the collapse in demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products resulted in a short-term contraction of the economy, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97, the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. Kazakhstan enjoyed double-digit growth in 2000-01 - 8% or more per year in 2002-06 - thanks largely to its booming energy sector, but also to economic reform, good harvests, and foreign investment. The opening of the Caspian Consortium pipeline in 2001, from western Kazakhstan's Tengiz oilfield to the Black Sea, substantially raised export capacity. Kazakhstan in 2006 completed the Atasu-Alashankou portion of an oil pipeline to China that is planned to extend from the country's Caspian coast eastward to the Chinese border in future construction. The country has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing light industry. The policy aims to reduce the influence of foreign investment and foreign personnel. The government has engaged in several disputes with foreign oil companies over the terms of production agreements; tensions continue. Upward pressure on the local currency continued in 2006 due to massive oil-related foreign-exchange inflows. Aided by strong growth and foreign exchange earnings, Kazakhstan aspires to become a regional financial center and has created a banking system comparable to those in Central Europe. Estimates below are for 2006 unless otherwise noted.
  • GDP:
    • purchasing power parity: $143.4 billion (125.3 in 2005, 118.4 in 2004, 105.5 in 2003)
    • official exchange rate: $53.6 billion (47.39 in 2005)
    • real growth rate: 10.6% (9.5% in 2005, 9.1% in 2004, 9.2% in 2003)
    • per capita: purchasing power parity $9,400 (8,300 in 2005, -$8,700 in 2004, - 7,800 in 2004, - $6,300 in 2003)
    • composition by sector:
      • agriculture: 6.3% (6.7% in 2005, 7.4% in 2004, 7.7% in 2003)
      • industry: 41.1% (38.6% in 2005, 37.8% in 2004, 37.7% in 2003)
      • services: 52.7% (54.7% in 2005, 54.8% in 2004, 54.6% in 2003)
  • Labor force: 7.834 million (7.85 in 2005, 7.95 in 2004, 7.634 in 2003)
  • Labor force - by occupation: industry 30%, agriculture 20%, services 50% (2002)
  • Unemployment rate:7.4% (8.1% in 2005, 8% in 2004, 8.8% in 2003)
  • Population below poverty line: 19% in 2004 (26% in 2001)
  • Household income or consumption by percentage share (2004 est.):
    • lowest 10%: 3.3% (2.8% in 2001)
    • highest 10%: 26.5% (27.3% in 2001)
  • Distribution of family income - Gini index: 31.5 in 2003 (35.4 in 1996)
  • Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (7.6% in 2005, 6.9% in 2004, 6.6% in 2003)
  • Investment (gross fixed): 27.3% of GDP (26.5% in 2005 est.)
  • Budget:
    • revenues: $18.48 billion ($12.19 in 2005, $8.67 in 2004, $7.634 in 2003)
    • expenditures: $18.09 billion, including capital expenditures ($12.44 in 2005, $8.968 in 2004, $6.999 in 2003)
  • Public Debt: 11% of GDP (10.5% in 2005, 13.7% in 2004, 15.5% in 2003)
  • Agriculture - products: grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; livestock
  • Industries: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
  • Industrial production growth rate: 7.7% (4.6% in 2005, 10.6% in 2004, 8.8% in 2003 est.)
  • Electricity
    • production: 66.5 billion kWh (60.33 in 2003, 52.43 in 2001)
    • consumption: 59.2 billion kWh (52.55 in 2003, 48.36 in 2001)
    • exports: 3.978 billion kWh in 2005 (4.9 in 2004, 6 in 2003, 3.6 in 2001)
    • imports: 4.552 billion kWh in 2005 (4.37 in 2004, 2.45 in 2003, 3.2 in 2001)
  • Oil
    • production: 1.3 million bbl/day in 2005 (1.2 million in 2004, 798,200 in 2001)
    • consumption: 222,000 bbl/day in 2005 (221,000 in 2003, 195,000 in 2001)
    • exports: 1 million bbl/day 2005 est. (890,000 in 2003)
    • imports: 113,600 bbl/day in 2004 (47,000 in 2003)
    • proved reserves: 9 billion bbl in January 2005 (26 in January 2004, 2.709 January 2002)
  • Natural gas
    • production: 25.39 billion cu m in 2005 est. (20.49 in 2004, 10.08 in 2001)
    • consumption: 29.2 billion cu m in 2005 est. (15.75 in 2001)
    • exports: 7.269 billion cu m in 2005 est. (7.01 in 2004, 11.01 in 2004, 4.1 in 2001)
    • imports: 11.09 billion cu m in 2005 (2.27 in 2004, 4.1 in 2003, 8.696 in 2004, 8.3 in 2001)
    • proved reserves: 1.765 trillion cu m in 1 January 2006 est. (1.841 in January 2005, 1.8 trillion in 2004, 920.3 billion cu m in January 2002)
  • Current account balance: -$1.797 million ($-485.7 billion in 2005, $-39.02 million in 2004, $-68.8 million in 2003)
  • Exports: $38.76 billion f.o.b. ($30.09 in 2005, $18.47 in 2004, $12.72 in 2003 est.)
  • Exports - commodities: oil and oil products 58%, ferrous metals 24%, chemicals 5%, machinery 3%, grain, wool, meat, coal (2001)
  • Exports - partners: Germany 12.4%, Russia 11.6%, China 10.9%, Italy 10.5%, France 7.4%, Romania 4.9% in 2006 (Bermuda 12.5%, Russia 11.1%, Germany 10.7%, China 10%, Italy 7.9%, France 7.7%, Romania 4.5%, US 4% in 2005; Russia 15.1%, Bermuda 13.8%, Germany 11%, China 9.9%, France 6.6%, Italy 4% in 2004)
  • Imports: $24.12 billion f.o.b. (17.51 in 2005, 13.07 in 2004, 8.621 in 2003 est.)
  • Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 41%, metal products 28%, foodstuffs 8% (2001)
  • Imports - partners: Russia 36.4%, China 19.3%, Germany 7.4% in 2006 (Russia 35.7%, China 21.3%, Germany 7.1% in 2005; Russia 34.6%, China 15.4%, Germany 8.2%, France 5.7%, Ukraine 4.6% in 2004)
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $19.13 billion (7.07 in 2005, 14.35 in 2004, 4.962 in 2003)
  • Debt - external: $73.45 billion June 2006 est. (41.66 in 2005, 26.03 in 2004, 24.45 in 2003 est.)
  • Economic aid - recipient: $229.2 million in 2005 ($74.2 million in US assistance programs, 1992-2000 FY 2004)
  • Stocks
    • Direct foreign investment - at home: $23.82 billion in 2006 est.
    • Direct foreign investment - abroad: $2.374 billion in 2006 est.
    • Market value of publicly traded shares: $10.52 billion in 2005
  • Currency (code): tenge (KZT)
  • Exchange rates: tenge per US dollar - 126.09 (2006), 132.88 (2005), 136.04 (2004), 149.58 (2003), 153.28 (2002), 146.74 (2001), 142.13 (2000), 119.52 (1999), 78.3 (1998)
  • Fiscal year: calendar year

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Communications

  • Telephones - main lines in use: 2.928 million in 2006 (2.5 in 2004, 2.081.900 in 2002, 1.92 million in 2001)
  • Telephones - mobile cellular: 7.83 million in 2006 (4.955 in 2005, 1.027 million in 2002, 400,000 in 2001)
  • Telephone system:
    • general assessment: service is poor; equipment antiquated
    • domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; mobile cellular systems are available in most of Kazakhstan
    • international: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
  • Radio broadcast stations: AM 60, FM 17, shortwave 9 (1998)
  • Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus nine repeaters) (1998)
  • Internet country code: .kz
  • Internet hosts: 33,217 in 2007 (21,187 in 2006, 21,984 in 2004)
  • Internet users: 1.247 million in 2006 (400,000 in 2005, 250,000 in 2002)

Transportation

  • Airports: 97 in 2007 (150 in 2006, 314 in 2004, 392 in 2003, 488 in 2002)
    • with paved runways:
      • total: 65
      • over 3,047 m: 9
      • 2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
      • 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
      • 914 to 1,523 m: 4
      • under 914 m: 8 in 2007 (10 in 2005 and 2006)
    • with unpaved runways:
      • total: 32
      • over 3,047 m: 4
      • 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
      • 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
      • 914 to 1,523 m: 4
      • under 914 m: 12 in 2007 (53 in 2006, 58 in 2005)
    • Heliports: 5 in 2007 (4 in 2005 and 2006)
  • Pipelines: 658 km; gas 11,019 km; oil 10,338 km; refined products 1,095 km in 2006 (condensate 18 km, gas 10,370 km, oil 10,158 km; refined products 1,187 km in 2004)
  • Railways: total: 13,700 km; broad gauge: 13,700 km 1.520-m gauge (3,700 km electrified) (2004)
  • Roadways:
    • total: 90,018 km
    • paved: 84,104 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
    • unpaved: 5,914 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (2004)
  • Waterways: 4,000 km
    note: on the Syr Darya (Syrdariya) and Ertis (Irtysh) rivers (80%) (2006)
  • Ports and terminals: Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk)
  • Merchant marine:
    • total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 30,011 GRT/49,223 DWT
    • ships by type: petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 1 in 2007 (cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1 in 2006)
    • foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: 2 Oman in 2006 (2 United Kingdom in 2005, 26 Netherlands in 2004)

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Military

  • Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Naval Force, Republican Guard
  • Military manpower
    • age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years; minimum age for volunteers NA (2004)
    • availability: males age 18-49: 3,758,255 in 2005; females age 18-49: 3,822,845 (4,233,623 in 2004)
    • fit for military service: males age 18-49: 2,473,529 and females age 18-49: 3,168,048 in 2005 (3,381,606 in 2004)
    • reaching military age annually: males: 173,129 and females age 18-49: 168,697 in 2005 (169,004 in 2004)
  • Military expenditures (FY02)
    • dollar figure: $221.8 million (Ministry of Defense expenditures)
    • percent of GDP: 0.9% (Ministry of Defense expenditures)

Transnational Issues

  • Disputes - international: Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries with Turkmenistan commenced in 2005, and with Uzbekistan in 2004; demarcation is scheduled to get underway with Russia in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; equidistant seabed treaties have been ratified with Azerbaijan and Russia in the Caspian Sea, but no resolution has been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states.
  • Refugees and internally displaced persons: 5,000 from Russia in 2006 (13,684 from Russia in 2005)
  • Illicit drugs: significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe.

Map courtesy of www.theodora.com/maps [external link] and used with permission.

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